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Rabu, 04 Maret 2009

GRAMMAR

What is GRAMMAR?
Grammar is a body of rules for speaking or writing and given language
OR…
Grammar is a science that teaches us how to speak, to read and to write correctly

PARTS OF SPEECH
 There are eight Parts of Speech (Bagian-bagian dalam Berbicara)
1. NOUN (Benda)
Ex: Table, Chair, Pen, etc.
 The book is on the table.
2. PRONOUN (Kata Ganti)
Ex: She, He, They, It
 The girl is standing there. She is Ellen.
3. VERB (Kata Kerja)
Ex: Study, Work, Eat, etc.
 I am studying hard.
4. ADVERB (Kata Keterangan)
Ex: Correctly, Loudly, Very, etc.
 Ben sings loudly.
5. ADJECTIVE (Kata Sifat)
Ex: Beautiful, Big, Clever, etc.
 The waitress is beautiful.
6. CONJUCTION (Kata Sambung)
Ex: And, Or.
 I and you are friends.
7. INTERJECTION (Kata Seru)
Ex: Hi!, Wow!, Shit!, etc.
 Hi, Ellen!
8. PREPOSITION (Kata Depan)
Ex: On, Before, By, etc.
 Don’t sit on the table!


GENDER
Gender is the form of the word male or female.
There are four kinds of gender:
1. MASCULINE GENDER
Is the name which has characteristic of male sex.
Ex: Father, Boy, Uncle, etc.
 He is my beloved father.
2. FEMININE GENDER
Is the name which has characteristic of female sex.
Ex: Mother, Lady, Woman
 She is my beloved mother.
3. COMMON GENDER
Is the name of living thing and can be either male or female.
Ex: People, Student, Parent, etc.
 Those are people.
4. NEUTER GENDER
Is the name of non living thing and can be either male or female.
Ex: Chalk, Blackboard, Desk, etc.
 The chalk is in the box.

There are three forms of gender:
I. Changing of Ending
Masculine Feminine
 Actor  Actress
 Author  Authoress
 Waiter  Waitress
II. Changing of Words
Masculine Feminine
 Boy  Girl
 Brother  Sister
III. Changing of Words, Before and After
After Before
 Grandfather,  Boyfriend,
Grandmother Girlfriend
 Grandnephew,
Grandniece

GERUND
Gender is the verb in -ING form ( Verb + Ing) that has function as a noun. Gerund used as subject, object, complement and modifier noun.
Ex: Cooking, Drawing, Riding, etc.
1. Sebagai Subjek
Ex: Cooking is a good hobby.
2. Sebagai Objek
Ex: I don’t like smoking.
3. Objek Kata Depan (Object of Preposition)
Ex: They are found of climbing mountain.
4. Sebagai Komplemen / Pelengkap
Ex: Mr. Afif‘s favorite sport is bicycle riding.
5. Sebagai Penjelas Noun (Modifier of Noun)
Ex: The waiting room is very large.
6. Menyatakan Larangan
Ex: No Smoking!
Note: Ada beberapa kata kerja yang harus diikuti oleh gerund, yaitu:
 Mind  Enjoy
 Finish  Risk
 Forgive  Suggest
 Allow  Miss
 Understand  Postpone
 Appreciate  Quit
 Avoid
 Consider
 Delay
 Discuss
Ex: I don’t understand answering the questions.
I consider going to Duta Mall.
TENSES
1) SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
(+) I eat the rice
(–) I do not eat the rice
(?) Do I eat the rice?

2) SIMPLE PAST TENSE
(+) I ate the rice
(–) I did not eat the rice
(?) Did I eat the rice?

3) PRESENT PROGRESS TENSE
(+) I am eating the rice
(–) I am not eating the rice
(?) Am I eating the rice?

4) PAST PROGRESS TENSE
(+) I was eating the rice
(–) I was not eating the rice
(?) Was I eating the rice?

5) PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
(+) I have eaten the rice
(–) I have not eaten the rice
(?) Have I eaten the rice?

6) PAST PERFECT TENSE
(+) I had eaten the rice
(–) I had not eaten the rice
(?) Had I eaten the rice?

7) PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESS TENSE
(+) I have been eating the rice
(–) I have not been eating the rice
(?) Have I been eating the rice?

8) PAST PERFECT PROGRESS TENSE
(+) I had been eating the rice
(–) I had not eating the rice
(?) Had I been eating the rice?

9) FUTURE TENSE
(+) I will eat the rice
(–) I will not eat the rice
(?) Will I eat the rice?

10) PAST FUTURE TENSE
(+) I would eat the rice
(–) I would not eat the rice
(?) Would I eat the rice?

11) FUTURE PROGRESS TENSE
(+) I will be eating the rice
(–) I will not be eating the rice
(?) Will I be eating the rice?

12) PAST FUTURE PROGRESS TENSE
(+) I would be eating the rice
(–) I would not be eating the rice
(?) Would I be eating the rice?

13) FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
(+) I will have eaten the rice
(–) I will not have eaten the rice
(?) Will I have eaten the rice?

14) PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
(+) I would have eaten the rice
(–) I would not have eaten the rice
(?) Would I have eaten the rice?

15) FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESS TENSE
(+) I will have been eating the rice
(–) I will not have been eating the rice
(?) Will I have been eating the rice?

16) PAST FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESS TENSE
(+) I would have been eating the rice
(–) I would have not been eating the rice
(?) Would I have been eating the rice?

RUMUS TENSES
1) S + V1 + O
2) S + V2 + O
3) S + am/is/are + V1 + ing + O
4) S + was/were + V1 + ing + O
5) S + have/has + V3 + O
6) S + had + V3 + O
7) S + have/has + been + V1 + ing + O
8) S + had + been + V1 + ing + O
9) S + will/shall + V1 + O
10) S + would/should + V1 + O
11) S + will/shall + be + V1 + ing + O
12) S + would/should + be + V1 + ing + O
13) S + will/shall + have + V3 + O
14) S + would/should + have + V3 + O
15) S + will/shall + have + been + V1 + ing + O
16) S + would/should + have + been + V1 + ing + O
Note: I → am, was,
You, We → are, were
She, He, It → is, was
(Do not: Don’t, Did not: Didn’t, Will not: Won’t, Shall not: Shan’t, Would not: Wouldn’t, Should not: Shouldn’t)

Kalimat terbagi menjadi dua, yaitu
1. NOMINAL SENTENCE (Kalimat Nominal)
Yang dimaksud dengan Kalimat Nominal adalah kalimat yang predikatnya tidak terdiri dari kata kerja, ex:
 I am a student (Noun)
 My Father is handsome (Adjective)
 Mr. Afif is there (Adverb of Place)
 It’s sevent o’clock (Adverb of Time)

2. VERB SENTENCE (Kalimat Verbal)
Yang dimaksud dengan Kalimat Verbal adalah kalimat yang predikatnya terdiri dari kata kerja. Kalimat verbal terbagi menjadi dua, yaitu:
a) TRANSITIVE SENTENCE
Kalimat Tarnsitif adalah kalimat yang predikatnya memerlukan objek.
Ex:
 I am writing the letter
 Rina is singing a song
 Deni and Doni are playing tennis

b) INTRANSITIVE SENTENCE
Kalimat Intransitif adalah kalimat yang predikatnya tidak memerlukan objek.
Ex:
 I am trying to reach you
 Mr. Afif is praying to the God
 The boys are going to school




CONDITIONAL SENTENCE
Conditional sentence memiliki tiga tipe
1. Type I ( Simple present + Simple future)
Ex:
 If I have much money, I will buy a car
 If I go, I will arrive

2. Type II (Simple past tense + Past future)
Ex:
 If I had much money, I would buy a car
 If I went, I would buy a car

3. Type III (Past perfect + Past future perfect)
Ex:
 If I had had much money, I would have bought a car
 If I had gone, I would have arrived

*Conditional sentence terbagi menjadi dua, yaitu Real Condition dan Unreal Condition.
1. REAL CONDITION (Type I)
Habit → If it rains, I drive
Future → If it rains, I will drive
Command → If it rains, drive!

2. UNREAL CONDITION (Type II & III)
Dan biasanya dalam kalimat pengandaian, yang dipakai adalah type II

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